What is Bone Ground Substance Made Of?

Bone ground substance is a complex mixture of proteins, minerals, and other molecules that make up the extracellular matrix of bone tissue. It is composed primarily of collagen fibers, proteoglycans, and non-collagenous proteins. The composition of bone ground substance varies depending on the type of bone tissue it is found in.

Collagen Fibers

Collagen fibers are the most abundant component of bone ground substance. They are made up of long strands of protein molecules that form a strong network throughout the extracellular matrix. Collagen fibers provide strength and flexibility to the bone tissue.


Proteoglycans are large molecules composed of protein and carbohydrate components. They are responsible for binding calcium ions to the collagen fibers, which helps to strengthen the bone tissue. Proteoglycans also help to regulate the movement of water and other molecules within the extracellular matrix.

Non-Collagenous Proteins

Non-collagenous proteins are smaller molecules that are found in the extracellular matrix. These proteins play an important role in regulating cell growth and differentiation, as well as providing structural support to the collagen fibers. Examples of non-collagenous proteins include osteocalcin, osteopontin, and osteonectin.

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